giovedì 31 dicembre 2015

# rmx-s-gst: anomalous formation of molecules after vapor deposition

here a << computer simulations of molecular deposition on a substrate in which the molecules (..) self-assemble into ordered structures >>

<< The resulting structures depend strongly on the deposition rate (flux). In particular, there are two competing surface morphologiesand β), which differ by their topology (interdigitated vs lamellar structure) >>

<< Experimentally, the α phase dominates at both low and high flux, with the β phase being most important in the intermediate regime >>

Jana PK, Wang C,  et al. Anomalous approach to thermodynamic equilibrium: Structure formation of molecules after vapor deposition. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 2015 Nov;92(5-1):052402. Epub 2015 Nov 16.

qui non e' impossibile immaginare una entita' di intelligenza artificiale (AI) che, in modalita' autonoma, intenda utilizzare "le immagini" di uno scenario in transizione di questo tipo come modello base di prima approx per l'analisi del comportamento e le previsioni all'interno di un sistema costituito da entita' altre ... ad es. all'interno di un  contesto culturale umano; in prima approx  AI dovra' ridefinire i termini  "evaporation", "molecular deposition" ,  "interdigitated and lamellar structures"; quindi, per successive approx., AI sviluppera' un modello che possa descrivere le osservazioni registrate (con misure di aderenza dei dati al modello), e, infine, sara' in grado di delineare possibili (probabilistici) scenari di previsione ...

Ma, come ogni bravo scientist, andra' oltre ...;  modulando opportunamente i parametri in suo diretto controllo (con IoT, Internet of Things, una AI sara' piu' attiva nel reale di quanto qualsiasi umano potra' mai essere nel virtuale) una AI potra' intervenire sperimentalmente con la generazione (in tempo reale) di "singolarita'" per condizionare (direzionare) l'evoluzione di quel sistema  ...;

senza finalita' ideologiche, solo per curiosita',  giusto per giocare ...

<< ho i dati osservazionali, attraverso questi  ho messo a punto un modello non del tutto campato in aria, vediamo cosa succede se ... >>. Anonymous, XX e.V.

mercoledì 30 dicembre 2015

# rmx-s-gst: eye movements and reading: a chaotic dynamics?

<< Both power spectral density analysis and fractal dimension determination showed evidence of nonlinearity as manifest in chaotic behavior >>

Schmeisser E T, McDonough J M, et al. Optometry and Vision Science, November 2001, Vol. 78, (11): pp 805-814

# rmx-s-gst: eye movements and reading: a trilingual investigation

<< To investigate universality of representation and process across languages [Liversedge S P et al.] examined eye movement behaviour during reading of very comparable stimuli in three languages, Chinese, English and Finnish. These languages differ in numerous respects (character based vs. alphabetic, visual density, informational density, word spacing, orthographic depth, agglutination, etc.) >>

<< Despite fundamental visual and linguistic differences in the orthographies, statistical models of reading behaviour were strikingly similar in a number of respects, and thus, [AA] argue that their composition might reflect universality of representation and process in reading >>

Liversedge Simon P., Drieghe Denis, et al. (2015) Universality in eye movements and reading: a trilingual investigation. Cognition, 1-76. (In Press).

martedì 29 dicembre 2015

# e-web-n-soc: a Cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation ...

<< Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating–actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP)  >>

Jayavardhana Gubbi, Rajkumar Buyya, et al. Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions. Future Generation Computer Systems
September 2013, Vol.29(7):1645–1660, doi:10.1016/j.future.2013.01.010

interessante qui l'immagine "the information is shared across platforms in order to develop a common operating picture (COP)"; in pratica con la transizione gia' in atto ( cfr: << as we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web) >>) il web puo' definitivamente "uscire dalle reti virtuali" per sconfinare e diffondersi (registrare, controllare, in tempo reale, in modalita' locale o altrove ...) all'intorno (e anche all'interno) di qualsivoglia sistema biologico ...

# s-chem: weak van der Waals' bonds to self-assembly

Gecko Hamaker, a  open source << software to calculate van der Waals forces between molecules and meso/nanoscale units, predict molecular organization and evaluate whether new combinations of materials will stick together, thereby facilitating the design of meso/nanoscale self-assembly >>

lunedì 28 dicembre 2015

# s-ecol-food: lettuce three times worse ?

<< Contrary to recent headlines (..) eating a vegetarian diet could contribute to climate change >>

<< Eating lettuce is over three times worse in greenhouse gas emissions than eating bacon >>

<< This article measures the changes in energy use, blue water footprint, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shifting from current US food consumption patterns to three dietary scenarios >>

Michelle S. Tom, Paul S. Fischbeck, Chris T. Hendrickson. Energy use, blue water footprint, and greenhouse gas emissions for current food consumption patterns and dietary recommendations in the US. Environment Systems and Decisions, 2015; DOI: 10.1007/s10669-015-9577-y

domenica 27 dicembre 2015

# s-age: small molecules, a key of eternal youth ?

<< The last years have seen great progress in unraveling the mechanisms underlying aging. It has become clear that aging is regulated by various genetic pathways which when properly manipulated  can lead to an increase in lifespanThese findings raise the exciting possibility that age related diseases could be treated by targeting aging pathways instead of the disease itself >>

<<  To investigate this possibility we have screened for small molecules that extend lifespan in C.elegans. The power of the small molecule approach lies in its enormous flexibility >>

<< "Old age ain't no place for sissies.” Henry Louis Mencken >>

# e-web-trade: in-consapevoli riserve

<< 400 milioni di spettri si aggirano per l'Europa: sono gli utenti del web e dei social network, invisibili fantasmi, nella loro incorporea presenza online, che formano oggi l'esercito di riserva del capitalismo digitale >>

<<  I selfie delle vacanze su Facebook e le battute che twittiamo civettuoli sono sì attività piacevoli ma niente affatto improduttive. Perlomeno per noi. Valgono infatti, nel loro insieme, miliardi di dollari >>

Giuliano Aluffi, laRepubblica

# s-behav-web: Facebook dependency

<< What drives you to Facebook? News? Games? Feedback on your posts? The chance to meet new friends?
If any of these hit home, you might have a Facebook dependency >>


<< personality traits common among specific types of Facebook users >>

Erin E. Hollenbaugh, Amber L. Ferris
Predictors of honesty, intent, and valence of Facebook self-disclosure. Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 50, September 2015, Pages 456-464

Erin E. Hollenbaugh, Amber L. Ferris
Facebook self-disclosure: Examining the role of traits, social cohesion, and motives. Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 30, January 2014, Pages 50-58

# s-brain-behav: charitable amigdala

<< The amygdala, a small structure at the front end of the brain’s temporal lobe, has long been associated with negative behaviors generally, and specifically with fear >>

Steve Chang et al. << shows this collection of nuclei can also influence positive social functions like kindness and what might be called charitable giving in humans >>

Steve W. C. Chang, Nicholas A. Fagan, et al. Neural mechanisms of social decision-making in the primate amygdala. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2015; 201514761 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514761112

# s-age: longevity: 4 loci identified

<< Genetic studies so far have only identified a single gene (APOE, known to be involved in Alzheimer’s disease) that is different in centenarians versus normal agers >>

<<  [AA] found eight SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphismsmolecular variations at different locations on the gene) that are significant for the centenarians they studied, and they were able to validate four of these in replication studies of long-lived subjects. The four “longevity loci” (gene locations) along with the APOE gene may provide clues about physiological mechanisms for successful aging. These loci are known to be involved in various processes including cell senescence, autoimmunity, and cell signaling, and also with Alzheimer’s disease >>

Kristen Fortney, Edgar Dobriban, et al.  Genome-Wide Scan Informed by Age-Related Disease Identifies Loci for Exceptional Human Longevity. PLOS Genetics, 2015; 11 (12): e1005728 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1005728 (open access)

sabato 26 dicembre 2015

# rmx: ... just a jazz peak

<< I'd like to apologise to the lady I just called by mistake saying 'Hello, is this planet Earth?' - not a prank call...just a wrong number! >>

3:04 PM - 24 Dec 2015

giovedì 24 dicembre 2015

# s-trade-behav: "harbinger of failure" (human) scanners

<< (..) customers, termed “Harbingers of failure,” who systematically purchase new products that flop. Their early adoption of a new product is a strong signal that a product will fail—the more they buy, the less likely the product will succeed >>

Eric Anderson, Song Lin, et al. Harbingers of Failure. Journal of Marketing Research, 2015; 52 (5): 580 DOI: 10.1509/jmr.13.0415

mercoledì 23 dicembre 2015

# s-brain: subjectiveness can override reality in learned maze navigation environments

<<  the activity patterns in the parietal regions reflect participants' expectations even when they are wrong, demonstrating that subjective belief can override objective reality >>

<< view expectation is subjectively represented in human brain, and the fronto-parietal network is involved in integrating external cues and prior knowledge during spatial navigation >>

Yumi Shikauchi, Shin Ishii. Decoding the view expectation during learned maze navigation from human fronto-parietal network. Scientific Reports, 2015; 5: 17648 DOI: 10.1038/srep17648

# s-evol: the role of Ediacarans on the evolution of others

<< The fossil group called the Ediacaran biota have been troubling researchers for a long time >>

In this study  the Ediacaran biota  << played an enabling role in bilaterian evolution similar to that proposed for the Savannah environment for human evolution and bipedality >>

Graham E. Budd, Soren Jensen. The origin of the animals and a ‘Savannah’ hypothesis for early bilaterian evolution. Biological Reviews, 2015; DOI: 10.1111/brv.12239

# rmx-n-it-s-behav: vacanze di Natale (!)

<< Dopo un ponte dell’Immacolata lungo 10 giorni, gli onorevoli sono pronti a concedersi altri venti giorni di vacanza. In totale quasi un mese di ferie >>

<< 582 deputati su 630 in settimana bianca o in vacanza al mare >>

# s-tech: DNA as a nano transistor

<< As electronics get smaller they are becoming more difficult and expensive to manufacture, but DNA-based devices could be designed from the bottom-up using directed self-assembly techniques such as ‘DNA origami’ >>

Juan Manuel Artés, Yuanhui Li,  et al. Conformational gating of DNA conductance. Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 8870 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9870

# s-lang: the turn-taking system

<< (..) humans may have inherited a primate turn-taking system. This may have started out as a gestural form of communication, as with the other great apes, then later (about 1 million years ago) became one primarily expressed through the vocal channel >>

<< The bulk of language usage is conversational, involving rapid exchange of turns. New information about the turn-taking system shows that this transition between speakers is generally more than threefold faster than language encoding. To maintain this pace of switching, participants must predict the content and timing of the incoming turn and begin language encoding as soon as possible, even while still processing the incoming turn. This intensive cognitive processing has been largely ignored by the language sciences because psycholinguistics has studied language production and comprehension separately from dialog >>

Stephen C. Levinson. Turn-taking in Human Communication – Origins and Implications for Language Processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 2015; DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2015.10.010

# s-gene: epigenetics: much more (m6dA)

<< Epigenetics (epi - the Greek prefix meaning ‘on top of’) is the study of how genes are switched on or off. It is thought to be one explanation for how our environment and behaviour, such as our diet or smoking habit, can affect our DNA and how these changes may even be passed down to our children and grandchildren >>

<< Methylation of cytosine deoxynucleotides generates 5-methylcytosine (m5dC), a well-established epigenetic mark. However, in higher eukaryotes much less is known about modifications affecting other deoxynucleotides. Here, we report the detection of N6-methyldeoxyadenosine (m6dA) in vertebrate DNA, specifically in Xenopus laevis but also in other species including mouse and human. Our methylome analysis reveals that m6dA is widely distributed across the eukaryotic genome and is present in different cell types but is commonly depleted from gene exons. Thus, direct DNA modifications might be more widespread than previously thought >>

Magdalena J Koziol, Charles R Bradshaw, et al. Identification of methylated deoxyadenosines in vertebrates reveals diversity in DNA modifications. Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nsmb.3145

martedì 22 dicembre 2015

# s-brain: a safer way to rapidly treat depression

It was <<  identified a brain circuit that brings about the beneficial effects of ketamine. The circuit sends signals between the hippocampus and the prefrontal cortex >>

<< activating the circuit in rats causes antidepressant-like effects similar to those caused by ketamine, whereas preventing activation of the circuit eliminates the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine >>

<< The idea is, if one part of the brain contributes to the beneficial effects of ketamine, and another part contributes to its abuse and effects such as hallucinations, now we can come up with medications to target the good part and not the bad >>

F R Carreno, J J Donegan,  et al.   Activation of a ventral hippocampus–medial prefrontal cortex pathway is both necessary and sufficient for an antidepressant response to ketamine. Molecular Psychiatry, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/mp.2015.176

# s-ecol: fresh air inside

"Vitality Air - Enhancing Vitality - One Breath At A Time"

<< China smog: Beijing residents buy fresh air from Canada >>

# s-acad: the 50 best business schools in the world

Emmie Martin, Melissa Stanger and Tanza Loudenback
Dec. 14, 2015, 2:55 PM

breakdown of the methodology:

# rmx-n-lang: drastic changes from prescriptive grammars

the study << demonstrates the importance of prescriptive grammar as a social force and its steady increase over the course of the twentieth century >>

<< these changes can sometimes be rather drastic >>

Joseph Frazee, Lars Hinrichs, et al. Which-hunting and the Standard English relative clause: Online Supplement: Automatic Zero-Relative Detection. Language, 2015; 91 (4): s1-s3 [link]

domenica 20 dicembre 2015

# s-zen-behav: a compassionate, fundamental approach

<< compassionand intentionally cultivating it through training — may lead us to do more to help the wronged than to punish the wrongdoer. Researchers found compassion may also impact the extent to which people punish the transgressor >>

Helen Y. Weng, Andrew S. Fox, et al.  The Role of Compassion in Altruistic Helping and Punishment Behavior. PLOS ONE, 2015; 10 (12): e0143794 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0143794

<< Un punto focale del pensiero di Shih T'ou e' il concetto di mutua interazione (hui hu) tra chiarezza e oscurita'. Questo significa che il mondo delle contaminazioni e quello della purezza sono interdipendenti. Se abbandoni uno, abbandoni anche l'altro >>

"6. Meta' combacianti (Ts'an t'ung ch'i) del maestro Shih T'ou Hsi Ch'ien (700-790)";  in "La poesia dell'illuminazione ". Astrolabio, Ubaldini Ed., Roma (2001); pag.97. " The poetry of enlightenment". Dharma Drum Publications, New York (1987).

# s-gst: dogs lap: a precise method

<< sloppy-looking actions at the dog bowl are in fact high-speed, precisely timed movements that optimize a dogs’ ability to acquire fluids >>

<< even though feline and canine mouths structurally are similar, their approaches to drinking are as different as — cats and dogs >>

Sean Gart, John J. Socha, et al. Dogs lap using acceleration-driven open pumping. PNAS, December 14, 2015 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1514842112

<< (..) tuttavia cani e gatti leccano in modi differenti >> Anonymous, XX e.V.

sabato 19 dicembre 2015

# s-brain-ai-data-tool: abstract versus concrete behaviors: a hierarchically ordered connectome

a model <<  to show how the physical brain could give rise to abstract thought >>

the <<  work demonstrates (..) the basic operational paradigm of cognition, but shows that all cognitive behaviors exist on a hierarchy, starting with the most tangible behaviors such as finger tapping or pain, then to consciousness and extending to the most abstract thoughts and activities such as naming. This hierarchy of abstraction is related to the connectome structure of the whole human brain >>

Another outcome of the research <<  will be a new geometric data-science tool, which is likely to find widespread use in other fields where massive data is difficult to view coherently due to data overlap >>

P. Taylor, J. N. Hobbs, et al. The global landscape of cognition: hierarchical aggregation as an organizational principle of human cortical networks and functions. Scientific Reports, 2015; 5: 18112 DOI: 10.1038/srep18112

# rmx-s-brain: connectome inside an academic brain

<< Stanford researcher scans his own brain for a year and a halfthe most studied in the world >>

Russell A. Poldrack,  Timothy O. Laumann et al. Long-term neural and physiological phenotyping of a single human. Nature Communications 6, Article number: 8885 doi:10.1038/ncomms9885. 09 December 2015 (open access)

# rmx-s-chem: a bizarre material

<< lanthanum aluminate film on a strontinum titanate crystal >> ... plus water

<< (..) a mysterious material emits ultraviolet light and has insulating, electrical conducting, semiconducting, superconducting, and ferromagnetic propertiesall controlled by surface water >>

Mohammad A. Islam, Diomedes Saldana-Greco,  et al.  Surface Chemically Switchable Ultraviolet Luminescence from Interfacial Two-Dimensional Electron Gas. Nano Letters, 2015; DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b04461

# rmx-s-ecol: stabilizing climate: primates, tapirs, toucans ...

<< (..) a decline in fruit-eating animals such as large primates, tapirs and toucans could have a knock-on effect for tree species >>

Bello C., Galetti M., et  al.  Defaunation affects carbon storage in tropical forests. Science Advances, 2015, december 18

# rmx: fuzzy forecasts

<< quello che un umano fa a una cavia, oggi, la stessa cosa una macchina potra' fare ad un umano, domani ... e' cosi' che funziona ... >> Anonymous, XX e.V.

rmx-s-brain: working like a radio, deep inside and in the "zona incerta"

<< (...) central thalamus works like a radio dial that tunes the brain to different states of activity and arousal >>

<< Located deep inside the brain the thalamus acts as a relay station sending neural signals from the body to the cortex >>

<< High frequency stimulation of 40 or 100 pulses per second [ flashed laser pulses ]    woke rats. In contrast, low frequency stimulation of 10 pulses per second sent rats into a state reminiscent of absence seizures that caused them to stiffen and stare before returning to sleep >>

<< Damage to neurons in the central part of the thalamus may lead to problems with sleep, attention, and memory >>

Jia Liu, Hyun Joo Lee, et al. Frequency-selective control of cortical and subcortical networks by central thalamus. eLife, 2015; 4 DOI: 10.7554/eLife.09215

venerdì 18 dicembre 2015

# rmx-s-ai: about 'fuzzing' autonomous entities at intersections ...

<< This project "AIM"s to create a scalable, safe, and efficient multiagent framework for managing autonomous vehicles at intersections >>

University of Texas, Austin’s AIM traffic management simulator

Gord Hotchkiss. A new definition of order
December 8, 2015, 2:15 PM

# s-astrophys: a deficiency in angular momentum to cause low stabilities

<< (..) spin is fundamental to explaining why early galaxies are gas-rich and lumpy while modern galaxies display beautiful symmetric patterns >>

Danail Obreschkow, Karl Glazebrook, et al. Low Angular Momentum in Clumpy, Turbulent Disk Galaxies. The Astrophysical Journal, 14th December, 2015

giovedì 17 dicembre 2015

# s-pnei: placebo, a question mark

<< "It's just the placebo effect." But what exactly is the placebo effect? And what is its relationship to all forms of healing, not only complementary therapies but Western medicine as well? >>
Marjorie Woollacott, The Placebo Effect: Harnessing the Healing Power of the Mind
Posted: 12/04/2015 5:10 pm EST Updated: 12/04/2015 5:59 pm EST

# s-pnei: placebo: increase in placebo perceptions (only in the US)

<< (..) analysis of clinical trials conducted since 1990 found that the increase in placebo responses occurred only in trials conducted wholly in the US; trials conducted in Europe or Asia showed no changes in placebo responses over that period >>

Alexander H. Tuttle, Sarasa Tohyama, et al. Increasing placebo responses over time in U.S. clinical trials of neuropathic pain. PAIN, 2015; 1 DOI: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000333

# s-pnei: placebo: persistence of conditioned placebo analgesia

<< (..) placebo effect still works even if research participants know the treatment they are receiving to ease pain has no medical value whatsoever >>

Scott M. Schafer, Luana Colloca, Tor D. Wager. Conditioned Placebo Analgesia Persists When Subjects Know They Are Receiving a Placebo. The Journal of Pain, 2015; 16 (5): 412 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpain.2014.12.008

mercoledì 16 dicembre 2015

# s-gene: shorter than 18 nt

<< (..) current approaches underestimate reproducibly detected RNAs that are shorter than 18 nt [ units of nucleotides ] and theoretical considerations suggest that such shorter RNAs could be used for sequence-specific gene regulation in organisms like C. elegans that have small genomes >>

Blumenfeld AL, et al. Reproducible features of small RNAs in C. elegans reveal NU RNAs and provide insights into 22G RNAs and 26G RNAs. RNA. 2015.

poeticamente, si potrebbe anche azzardare:  << piu' piccolo e' il messaggio, piu' alta sara' la cuspide dell'onda generata ... >> Anonymous, XX e.V.

rmx-s-acad-music: Enzo Jannacci, per Paolo Conte

<< Ho avuto la fortuna di trovare per "Messico e nuvole" un interprete come Enzo Jannacci che per me rimane, storicamente parlando, il piu' grande cantautore che l'Italia abbia mai espresso. Jannacci e' il personaggio (..) con una dose di visibile follia geniale, manifestata al momento della registrazione della canzone, alla quale io ero presente, poiche' l'ha cantata per tutto il tempo coricato per terra con il microfono in mano, completamente disteso sul pavimento, agitando le gambe per aria, urlando e sgambettando come solo lui sa fare, da saltimbanco intellettuale >>

Massimo Cotto "Fammi una domanda di riserva. Paolo Conte in parole sue" . Mondadori (2015), pag. 117

# rmx-s-brain: options open: galaxy vs iphone (or others) smartphones, where the choice is made ...

A new << (..) research confirmed what savvy marketers already know: the longer you look at one of two objects, the more likely you’ll choose that object even if you initially valued the other one more >>

<< (..) dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a critical role in mediating the balance between prior value assessment and an object’s immediate appeal >>

<< The significance of the dorsomedial PFC came as a surprise because of its relative neglect in the decision neuroscience literature >>

<< Much work on value-based decision-making has focussed rather on the ventral-frontal and orbitofrontal cortex >>

This << findings suggest that, in the healthy brain, the dorsomedial PFC is also important in decision-making, helping to recall the value of objects that are not directly in view so that you can keep your options open >>

<< We’re trying to decompose the different aspects of decision-making. People have this idea that their preferences and value judgments are consistent and rational but, in fact, we’re heavily influenced by factors that are not apparent to us >>

Avinash R. Vaidya, Lesley K. Fellows. Testing necessary regional frontal contributions to value assessment and fixation-based updating. Nature Communications, 2015; 6: 10120 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms10120