<< Volcanoes progressively weaken and may collapse without warning through hydrothermal alteration. These dangerous mass wasting processes occur less-frequently than eruptions or lahars but the resultant mass flows can be large in size, posing risk to local residents, and businesses. >>
<< Collapses are often multi-hazard events, with even small-scale landslides capable of triggering eruptions or creating break-out lahars. >>
<< These kind of events demonstrated the greater need to understand and assess this process >>
Gabor Kereszturi. Modelling volcanoes that "collapse without warning". Massey University. Jun 21, 2018.