lunedì 11 dicembre 2017

# evol-ethno: the fuzzy dispersal and interaction dynamics of ancient (early) nomads

AA << evaluate single versus multiple dispersal models and southern versus the northern dispersal routes across the Asian continent. They also review behavioral and environmental variability and how these may have affected modern human dispersals and interactions with indigenous populations >>

Christopher J. Bae, Katerina Douka, Michael D. Petraglia. On the origin of modern humans: Asian perspectives. Science. 2017; 358 (6368): eaai9067
doi: 10.1126/science.aai9067. Dec 8, 2017

<< Homo sapiens reached distant parts of the Asian continent, as well as Near Oceania, much earlier than previously thought. Additionally, evidence that modern humans interbred with other hominins already present in Asia, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, complicates the evolutionary history of our species >>

Revising the story of the dispersal of modern humans across Eurasia. Technological advances and multidisciplinary research teams are reshaping our understanding of when and how humans left Africa - and who they met along the way. Dec 7, 2017

<< Climate is a key factor determining the types of vegetation that can grow in an ecosystem. By recreating the plant foods and habitat available at a given time, it is possible to learn about changes that occurred during important transitions in the evolution of humans >>

Marie DeNoia Aronsohn. The Way We Were: Climate and Human Evolution. Dec 1, 2017.

sabato 9 dicembre 2017

# gst: predicting the exact force needed to crumple a dented can

<< Dent an aluminum can and it will be easier to crush from top to bottom. But predicting the exact force needed to crumple a dented can is notoriously difficult, requiring knowledge of the exact dimensions and position of the flaw >>

Katherine Wright. Synopsis: Crumpling Coke Cans. Nov 28, 2017

AA << measure the response of cylindrical shells to poking and identify a stability landscape, which fully characterizes the stability of perfect shells and imperfect ones in the case where a single defect dominates >>

Emmanuel Virot, Tobias Kreilos, et al.  Stability Landscape of Shell Buckling. Phys. Rev. Lett. 119, 224101. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.224101.  Nov 28,  2017  

venerdì 8 dicembre 2017

# gst-ecol: around 'extreme dust scenarios'

they << saw an extreme dust scenario >>

Jim Robbins. Unraveling the surprising ecology of dust. Dec 1, 2017

AA << developed a new snow albedo decay parameterization based on observations in 2009/10 to mimic the radiative forcing of extreme dust deposition >>

J. S. Deems, T. H. Painter, et al.  Combined impacts of current and future dust deposition and regional warming on Colorado River Basin snow dynamics and hydrology. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 2013; 17: 4401-13. doi: org/10.5194/hess-17-4401-2013

S. McKenzie Skiles, Thomas H. Painter, et al. Regional variability in dust-on-snow processes and impacts in the Upper Colorado River Basin. Hydrological Processes. 2015; 29 (26); 5397–413. doi: 10.1002/hyp.10569. Jul 14, 2015;jsessionid=?

Christopher M. Taylor, Danijel Belusic, et al. Frequency of extreme Sahelian storms tripled since 1982 in satellite observations. Nature 2017; 544: 475–8. doi:10.1038/nature22069.  Apr 27, 2017.


una intrigante introduzione circa l'importanza, nelle prospettive ecologica e sanitaria, delle (caotiche) dinamiche di sbricio-lamento ...

giovedì 7 dicembre 2017

# lang: about 'identity'; acquisition of dialects among bats

<< Young bats adopt a specific 'dialect' spoken by their own colonies, even when this dialect differs from the bat 'mother tongue' >>

<< the study calls into question the uniqueness of this skill in humans >>

Young bats learn bat 'dialects' from their nestmates. Language acquisition not limited to human beings. Oct 31, 2017.

Yosef Prat, Lindsay Azoulay, et al. Crowd vocal learning induces vocal dialects in bats: Playback of conspecifics shapes fundamental frequency usage by pups. PLOS  Biology 15(10): e2002556. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.2002556. Oct 31, 2017.  

mercoledì 6 dicembre 2017

# behav: generous bonobo

<< Modern humans live in an “exploded” network with unusually large circles of trust that form due to prosociality toward unfamiliar people (i.e. xenophilia). In a set of experiments [AA] demonstrate that semi-free ranging bonobos (Pan paniscus) – both juveniles and young adults – also show spontaneous responses consistent with xenophilia >>

Jingzhi Tan, Dan Ariely, Brian Hare. Bonobos respond prosocially toward members of other groups. Scientific Reports  2017; 7 (14733). doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-15320-w. Nov 7, 2017.

Robin A. Smith. Bonobos Help Strangers Without Being Asked. Humans aren’t the only species eager to make a good first impression. Nov 7, 2017.

lunedì 4 dicembre 2017

# brain: perception of musical rhythms in mammals

AA << confirmed that beat perception, far from being a unique human trait, is likely strongly conserved in mammals >>

Andrew Masterson. Beat perception more primitive than thought. New research shows gerbils react differently to varying musical rhythms. Nov 9, 2017.

Vani G. Rajendran, Nicol S. Harper, et al. Midbrain adaptation may set the stage for the perception of musical beat. Proc. R. Soc. B 2017 284 20171455; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2017.1455. Nov 8, 2017.

sabato 2 dicembre 2017

# gst-ethno-lang: the physics of bubbles to describe (and to predict) the dynamics of linguistic patterns

<< If you want to know where you'll find dialects and why, a lot can be predicted from the physics of bubbles and our tendency to copy others around us >> James Burridge

Physics of bubbles could explain language patterns. July 24, 2017

<< The model shows that the boundaries of language dialect regions are controlled by a length minimizing effect analogous to surface tension, mediated by variations in population density which can induce curvature, and by the shape of coastline or similar borders >>

<< The model is able to reproduce observations and predictions of dialectologists. These include dialect continua, isogloss bundling, fanning, the wavelike spread of dialect features from cities, and the impact of human movement on the number of dialects that an area can support >>

James Burridge. Spatial Evolution of Human Dialects. Phys. Rev. X. 031008. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevX.7.031008. Jul 17, 2017